Guidelines for Holistic Ministry Approach
The present human situation in general, is humiliated with unmanageable power of poverty all across the globe. Melba Maggay lamented the fact that the cycle of poverty has been our lot for centuries. Nations all across the globe seem so desire for development. “Almost all nations are development-minded. Countries which have been poor and stagnant for centuries are striving to minimize or eliminate poverty, disease, and inequality”. As well, so much economic and political activities are undertaken in pursuit of development.
On the one hand, it is not the ambition of this work “to define a platform and neither is it interested in detailing a program of action.” On the other hand, the idea is to propose guidelines on holistic ministry approach to development.
Meantime, it appears that “People need release from bondage. People need to be restored from being mere objects to their role as subjects in society. Society itself needs to be transformed.” While Steve de Gruchy has observed, “Yet we see today that so many people who are excluded from the global economy because of political and economic processes do not have access to food. The result is that they go hungry and die.” 
Perhaps this must be the reason why well-intentioned people organizations and various programs for development proliferate. Notwithstanding enormous resources mobilized for development, it seems these development programs and activities have made little impact in terms of “upgrading the socio-economic status of urban poor or improving the condition of the community.” This leads us to the task of understanding development.
Most often than not, development is equated with economic sufficiency. There are those who adhere to the theory and practice that development is synonymous with economic growth. So there are those who pursue in accumulating human capital and workout its effective investment in the development of economy. When Deng Xiaoping was the Chairman of the Central Committee, he set three main goals for China. The first was “to put economic development in first place and use all available means to transform China from a ‘backward’ to ‘advance’ nation.”
Others would think that development “must be seen as the total process which includes economic, political, social and cultural aspects.” This kind of socio-economic concept of development requires improvement in the quality as well as the quantity of life. In a news item, Benjamin Abalos, Sr., Chairman of Metropolitan Manila Development Authority, was quoted saying, “. . . When people start going to your area, that’s already development.”
And still others would define development as “qualitative improvement in all societies and in all groups and individuals in societies.” This kind of development puts meaning on ethical standards.
Development is defined, to our mind, as a process of eliminating the oppressors and the oppressed to realize the full humanity of every person in societies in Christ thereby developing human capabilities and their productive use. We think of development whereby guaranteeing peace and prosperity, a just distribution of resources and output, and elimination of poverty.
We envision a development where “people transforming the world and creating their own future; thus it is participation in God’s redemptive plan for mankind.” In the end, “each human being is able to flourish, to become what he or she ought to be as an image-bearer of God.” In a nutshell, development is a process of binding the whole creation, when Man is the crown of glory, to God, the creator. Development is simply understood as improving society and people who made up of it. The motivation to the process of development is to improving the “human capabilities” of people.
Under-Development in Context
Asia is known to be “a history of foreign domination and resistance.” While the colonizers disrupted the economic, political and socio-cultural systems of the Asians, the Asian people have shown their determination to be free and independent. In the Philippines, for instance, “centuries of colonization brought about fundamental changes in the way of life” of the Filipino people.
The communal ways of communities gave way to feudalism. The innate power of the people to manage their own affairs and development was snatched from their hands. Land became the monopoly of the few. Poverty and powerlessness became prevalent. . . 
The Filipino people are in bondage. All sectors of the Philippine society – peasants, fishermen, workers, urban poor, national minorities, students and youth – are groaning from underdevelopment and concomitant poverty of the great masses.
In like manner, history would tell us that the Philippine people resisted against colonialism.
The first military resistance against Spain led to the battle in Mactan Island in which Magellan was killed by chief Lapu-lapu. Lapu-lapu’s heroism became a mighty symbol in the struggles of the people against colonialism. There were more than 200 revolts during 333 years of Spanish colonial rule in the Philippines. The climax was the national revolution in 1896.
There goes the context of under-development!
Under-development is better understood in the context of humanity being created with dignity. Thus, humankind has the innate dignity of being the crown of God’s creation, in order to serve as the image-bearer of God. Humanity has the great privilege of reflecting God. A significant part of the image is expressed in the freedom and responsibility of man and woman to act as moral agents, as well as in their ability top extend God’s sovereignty over all life.
The creation story centers not only on God in relationship but also on male and female as created in the image of God. There lies the dignity of humankind.
As people of faith we recognize that human beings are made in the image of God. As such, all have a right to a life of freedom and dignity, and a livelihood to obtain it. We have a right to abundant life in which we can express and develop potentials for the well being of society.
Through the Fall though, humans have become self-centered, oppressive, destructive, and abusive. This state of humans had distorted the image of God in man and in turn, marred the dignity of fellow humans. There is the root cause of under-development of peoples, particularly in Asia!
Issues Concerning Development
To our mind, there are two key issues on development that we need to address in this section. First, it has something to do with our understanding of poverty. Or how would we define poverty. Secondly, how would we address the malady of poverty? Or what is our development approach to poverty?
1. Defining Poverty
It is a fact that poverty has become at the center of Christian concern for social development. Understanding the concept of poverty is crucial and has a direct bearing on the solutions that are offered. 
Most often, poverty is defined focusing on income levels. Thus, people below a certain level of income is labeled as “poor” and others are “not poor”. The traditional view of poverty is encompassing in that it is not only material deprivation but low achievement in education and health. Filipino and Roman Catholic Bishop Teodoro C. Bacani, Jr. sees a person as poor when he/she lacks (and such lack is not momentary but habitual) the basic necessities such as food, shelter, clothing, access to education and health care for living human life. The reality of being “lack of” results to less access to resources and opportunities that will enable the person to develop his/her potentials. This would end up in a situation of powerlessness.
2. Approaches to Development
As mentioned earlier, our understanding of poverty has a direct bearing on the solutions that are offered. Since the Christian gospel has intrinsic social dimensions, how then we go about “transforming a society steeped in hard injustice and abject deprivation?” We will review approaches to development in this section of the paper.
2.1 Social Service Approach
The social service approach is described as “giving material help, and social services.” This approach is most often equated with social welfare. The Inner City Ministries in Hong Kong is an example for this category of development action.
During our module classes in Hong Kong and Shenzhen, China on January 7-19, 2002 for the Doctor of Ministry in Transformational Leadership for Ministry in Global City Program, we visited the Inner City Ministries (ICM) at Chung King mansions in Nathan road, TST. The ICM is a Christian charitable organization that endeavors to bring hope and help to the urban poor in Hong Kong. ICM provides social services such as transit shelter for unwed mothers, rehabilitation for persons who are hooked to illegal drugs and temporary home for petty criminals.
2.2 Community Development Approach
Historically, “programs that aimed to provide welfare and to reconstruct the communities became the thrust of many nations after the war. . .” Since it recognizes that problems are more than economic, and so also social activities, the community development approach “seeks to make functional improvements and is action complementary to the existing socio-economic structures of society.”
This approach is often supplementing or cooperating with Government action. In the Philippines, community development concept and programs had its beginning at the time when the communist movement was at its height and there was a need to
arrest the growing tide of discontent . . . and the rising expectation of the people . . . it was utilized as a measure, alongside with the military effort of suppression and was recognized as a potent weapon to restore confidence and trust in the government. . .
The community development approach was adopted to suit the objectives of the national government namely, a) to facilitate control of depressed or remote areas; b) to persuade the masses to conform to government policies and goals; c) to institutionalize a system of patronage anchored on the government bureaucracy. . .
The goal of community development is a conscientized and organized people organization involved in various community affairs, including both political concerns and the management of their resources.
2.3 Community Organization Approach
This approach sees the problems of the poor and oppressed, not as basically functional but as rooted in and perpetuated by the structural organization of society.
The thrust of this approach is through community organization work with the poor. Help them to understand the root causes behind their situation and the source of the crushing impact upon them. Encourage their self-help and concerted action. Enable their organization to correct injustice, secure changes in structures, and even a rightful place in society.
The thought of the matter is that any structural organization change would lead to greater fulfillment of goals and quality of life of people in the community. “Belief that communities are disintegrating, threadbare or failing has led to undertake social concern expressed in community action, community care, community organizing, and community work(ers). Fr. Ben Beltran, who is working with the urban poor in Manila, is an example for this.
Fr. Ben Beltran, the leader of the Smokey Mountain community reveals a unique model that powerfully integrates the interests of the three streams identified thus far. It is a story of a marginalized people’s deliverance from their threatened existence in a noxious garbage dump in Manila to become an organized, self-determining, “whole” community. This model commends itself as an example of holistic integration in urban work.
2.4 Incarnational Approach of Development Action
There is the Incarnational approach of development action. The Incarnational approach is described as dwelling “among the people and identify as deeply as we can without benefit of the cultural or social or educational baggage which usually accompanies us in our journey towards solidarity with the poor.”
The process of Incarnational approach, “restore parity and avoids the indignity of paternalism which often reduces people ‘empowerment’” As well, this kind of development which changes “both us and the poor into true people of the Kingdom with a deeper concern for justice and empathy for those who fall and unable to ‘pull themselves by their bootstraps’. . . “ In a word, the Incarnational approach of development action requires the development initiator to do things with the poor, and not doing things to them. The Incarnational approach is closely contextual to holistic ministry approach.
Conceptual Perspective of Holistic Ministry Approach
The Church today is polarized into taking sides between personal evangelism and social action. “That is, we love taking stands and cheering for our side of the polarities of Christian ministry – personal evangelism or social action, just to name one of the most obvious”. The dichotomy of the Christian ministry divides us and stifles the spreading of the encroaching influences of God’s kingdom. But the good news of God’s kingdom is wholly whole.
Holistic ministry is conceptualized as “ministering to physical and ministering to spiritual needs, though functionally separate, are relationally inseparable, and both are essential to the total ministry of Christ’s church.” Whereas Maggay states that, evangelism and social action are distinct; both however, are parts of our Christian duty.” Holistic ministry is seen as the whole gospel for the whole person.
Compare this further with Tetsunao Yamamori and Kim-kwong Chan when they say:
Although Lisu Christian leaders have no formal theological training, their theological methodology seems to be ‘from below’ approach: realization of physical needs, reflection upon their needs, pastoral action to fulfill them. At first, they taught only the Bible to their voluntary pastors, but in recent year years they have realized that the needs of the Christian s are physical as well as spiritual. They began to focus their ministry not just on spiritual but also on agricultural, educational, and medical programs. They are now teaching the voluntary pastors to minister to both the spiritual and physical needs of their flock. In its practical principles, the holistic ministry is described as “the cycle of reciprocity; namely, redemption leading to development, and further, development leading to redemption.”
Or “a tissue paper separating material from spiritual, as the late George McLeod of the Iona Community would put it. In a word, holistic ministry is reaching out to people in need; people who are sent by God to us to give us opportunity to demonstrate the power and purpose of God’s kingdom.
Biblical Theological Perspective of Holistic Ministry
Since this work is premised to be biblically oriented there is a need to be laying out the biblical and theological foundations of holistic ministry. The idea is to inform a holistic approach of ministry with the biblical-theological framework.
The Bible uses images that we recognize as development. It is our task, in this regard, to study Scripture passages both in Old and New Testaments. We hope that insights from the Bible would provide a framework in which, a holistic approach of ministry would operate.
Old Testament Context (Exodus 22:25-27)
It should be stated at the outset that the Old Testament views human being holistically. In contrast to dualistic ways of thinking the Old Testament sees human being holistically within historico-eschatological horizon. Its view is synthetic, for there is no strict division between the “parts” of human being and there exists no clear dichotomy of his or her functions. The human being is primarily considered a unity of vital powers by which he or she stands continually in relation to God and the world.
On the other hand, the Old Testament is full of law regarding care of the poor and the weak. In fact, it was pointed out that the “Hebrew law code is noted for fairness and social responsibility toward the poor.” 
Exodus 22:25-27 concerns the law on person’s cloak. The cloak was one of an Israelite’s most valuable possessions because making clothing was difficult and time-consuming. Hywel Jones writes, “The poor were not to be at the mercy of the rich, and no essential article was to be kept as a pledge, such as a mantle which served as cloak by day and a blanket by night.” No wonder the law insists, “If you take your neighbor’s cloak as a pledge, return it to him by sunset because his cloak is the only covering he has for his body” (vv. 26-27). Or else, what will he sleep in?
This simply shows that God insisted that the poor and powerless be well treated and given the chance to restore their fortunes. Thus, the Old Testament context of development requires us to be concern for the poor by helping those less fortunate than us.
The biblical mark of a society’s success is not in its wealth or military power, but in its care for the weaker sectors. Wealth-creation is good and proper as long as the priority is to satisfy the needs of all, rather than to let some own and enjoy whatever they can afford.
New Testament Context (Luke 10: 25-37)
To a great extent, the New Testament follows the Old Testament understanding of human being. “Although the dualistic anthropology of Greek philosophy already exerted an influence on Late Judaic literature, the Synoptic do not diverge from the Old Testament understanding”. There is New Testament passages that reflect, in the mind of the Lord Jesus; we suppose, compassionate response to the plight of the poor and the needy. We have for one, the parable of the Good Samaritan. It must have been an awful story. In a steep road, 17 miles long, descended the 3,300 feet from Jerusalem to Jericho , there lies a half dead man who fell into the hands of robbers (Luke 10:30).
The core thought of Luke 10: 25-37 is an example of loving one’s neighbor without limits. Corollary to this, “Failure to keep the commandment does not spring from lack of information but from lack of love.” Wherever we live, we need a new heart (converted to Christ) for fellow humans, regardless of nationality, creed, or social standing. There is good reason to love one’s neighbor – as expressed in compassion and justice. After all, to the Samaritan, the wounded man was a human being worth being cared for and loved.
Theological Perspective of Holistic Ministry
From the foregoing exploration of the biblical images of holistic ministry there appeared theological contexts of the same. Since every human being must be redeemed both physically and spiritually, we see social involvement such as providing work opportunities in an area of great unemployment, heralding time of wealth and social progress for all as inherent dimension to the cosmic mandate of the Kingdom of God in salvation. Our theological perspective of holistic ministry, in this respect, calls for us to be holistic in approach and strategy. Yes, evangelism and social action are functionally distinct from each other; they are however, inseparable and essential parts in the Christian-oriented process of ministry. Holistic ministry calls for the healing of broken people – “broken from sin, disease, dis-ease, oppression, suppression, alienation, frustration, dysfunction, disability, abused, misused, victimized, ostracized, etc.”
There is no division between the spiritual and immaterial dimensions in the human being,” Beltran writes. Donald Miller writes, “. . . Clearly there is no mind-body separation for members of this church.” Miller adds, “In his view, progressive politics can never substitute for deep spiritual engagement, although the two can go hand-in-hand which, incidentally, is the argument that Ted Yamamori and I make based on our research in Two-Thirds World.”
Miller further states, “In his view, progressive politics can never substitute for deep spiritual engagement, although the two can go hand-in-hand which, incidentally, is the argument that Ted Yamamori and I make based on our research in Two-Thirds World.” In a tribute to H. Evan Runner, Professor of Philosophy at Calvin College, Al Wolters, Professor of Religion and Theology/Classical Languages at Redeemer University College, writes,
Central to all Runner’s teaching was the insight captured in the slogan, ‘life is religion’. Every aspect of human life stands in the service of either the true God of biblical religion or some substitute or ideal . . . It is therefore impossible to demarcate some province of human life and declare it ‘secular’ in the sense of being exempt to construct a ‘two-realm theory’ that contrasts sacred and secular or holy or profane spheres of life must be resisted . . . Consequently, all academic work, whether in philosophy or another field of scholarly inquiry, is directed by some spiritual impulse, is controlled by presuppositions of an ultimate religious nature.
Whereas the ministry of the Convention of Philippine Baptist Churches in the Philippines would account emphasis in holistic ministry too!
In 1983 FWMS started an economic assistance project. Funds were raised so that members could borrow money to finance their income generation enterprise. The project was envisioned to alleviate the economic situation of churches and rural women. The women believed that in a difficult economic situation their mission was not only saving souls but also providing for the physical needs of persons. 
Eighty percent of the 15 Baptist leaders interviewed agreed that social concerns projects have been ‘very important’ because they respond to the ‘holistic’ need of people, especially the poor, the deprived and the oppressed.”
In particular, Rev. Dr. Agustin E. Masa, President and General Secretary of the Convention of Philippines Baptist Churches, was holistic ministry advocate. In one of his papers he asserted, “But this form of service [referring to building of school houses, constructing bridges and building piggery houses undertaken by U. S. Army in the Philippines] can only be effective witness if it has its ultimate and the full redemption of the individual.”
Principles as Guidelines for Holistic Ministry Approach
In pursuing the process of holistic ministry, five main principles stand out, namely: 1) release; 2) restore; 3) transform; 4) holism and faith; and 5) communally approached.
1. Releasing from the Bondage
There are organizations and institutions throughout the world, particularly in Asia, which are engaging in holistic ministry. A lot of these organizations and institutions are branches of the church, forming communities separate from ordinary structures of society as a response to social putrefaction and to the physical and spiritual needs of under-developed peoples. Since people are wretchedly under-developed, there is a need for them to be released from bondage of all essences and forms. There is a pressing need of people to be delivered from material and social poverty, and spiritual poverty.
2. Restoring to Being Subjects in Communities
In turn, people need to be restored to their full humanity, from being objects to their role as subjects in society. Restoring to being subjects in society, where peoples have equitable access to resources and the distribution of wealth – a condition of true shalom in the Kingdom of God. Moreover, peoples are in need to be released from captivities such as colonialism and neo-colonialism in order to help themselves and others in contributing to the overcoming of these captivities in other parts of the world.
3. Transforming Communities
Society itself needs to be transformed. This approach views a process of ministry that brings about deliverance of people from all forms of bondage and in the end transforming society. Transforming communities, thus, when applied in the case of stewardship, there is the principle of shared resources. Since the earth is given to all mankind, “ownership does not entail absolute right of disposal, but rather responsibility for administration and distribution.” Moreover, transformed communities, where there shall be no poorer, social structures become responsive to the human needs and oppression is eliminated.
4. Holism and Faith
A kind of holistic ministry which enable peoples to empower themselves and integrate holism and faith in actual living, which in turn yield creative ways in enhancing the multi-dimensions of good life and in establishing a credible witness for Christian gospel.
Holistic ministry approach is enabling people to be strong not only in spiritual but in their human capabilities in charting their “own destinies and realize their full potential.”
5) Communally Approached
Holistic ministry approach to development is best undertaken not but individualistic efforts and abilities but by a network of vast resources in congregations and organizations within the Kingdom of God. Holistic ministry is also intentionally approached by the leverage of all spiritual, gifts, and resources of all God’s people.
A congregation has so much that they can bring to HM [holistic ministry]. God has blessed us richly: we are ‘blessed to be a blessing.’ As an act of stewardship, God calls upon us to use wisely what the Lord has given to us. We use not our package of resources within a local congregation, but it would behoove us to network with the vast resources in their congregations and organizations in our community. Just as one person does not have all the spiritual gifts, skills, life experiences and resources necessary to live out the life of Christian discipleship, I believe no single congregation has the entire list. We need one another, both as individuals and as congregations.
Bacani puts it well, “Indeed, we reach full human development [holistic sense] only when we put our own gifts and self at the service of others . . . We become great and glorify God when we put our talents and ourselves at the service of others. . . .” 
Development is indeed, dynamic and multi-dimensional. It is because there is no perspective, approaches, strategies, and practices of development that could really last forever. All of development is subject to re-formulation and changes. We need, at times though, to learn and unlearn our understanding of development.
And development is multi-dimensional because we could not just confine to one aspect of human existence for improvement or reformation and call it development. On one hand, since every human being involves his/her whole being, there is no room for dichotomizing the person. There is no meaningful experience in drawing lines on the aspects of the person. On the other hand, the fact that the “spiritual value of human beings consists in and through their bodily existence,” we must be holistic in our perspective, strategies, and approaches to Christian ministry. This means that our initiative and advocacy must be girded toward the total person and in turn must result to holistic development of every human being.
Through the lenses of holistic approach to ministry, every human being experiences the fullness of life (John 10:10) and redeemed into its original status – being created in the image of God.
 Course Project submitted by Sergio A. Rojo, Jr. to Professor of Record, Dr. Ray J Bakke, for the Overture Course II (THEO 3), on October 21-31, 2004 in Manila, Doctor of Ministry in Transformational Leadership for Ministry in Global City Program, Northwest Graduate School (now, Bakke Graduate University), Seattle, WA.
Melba Padilla Maggay, Transforming Society, (Quezon City, Philippines: Institute for studies in Asian Church and Culture, 1996), 4.
Estrellita T. Muhi, Habel S. Panopio, and Lucila L. Salcedo, Dynamics of Development: The Philippine Perspective, (Quezon City, Philippines: National Book Store, 1993), p. 1.
Maggay, Transforming Society, iii.
Harvey L. Perkins, Guidelines for Development, (Singapore: Christian Conference of Asia, 1985), 1.
Steve de Guchy, “Give us this day our daily bread,” in CWM Inside Out, December 2002, 22.
Joel B. Santos, “Holistic & Contextualized Discipleship Ministry, (A Dissertation for Doctor of Pastoral Studies). http://www.tosalvation,a call to the kingdom of God, a call to believe on Jesus for eternal life (Wilkins, 1992 p.htm. Internet; Accessed on September 10, 2004.
John Gittings, Real China: From Cannibalism to Karaoke, (London, UK: Simon & Schuster, 1996), 2.
Muhi, et al., 1.
 “12 mayors off to China today,” Philippine Star, March 12, 2002, 12.
Muhi, et al., 2.
Jonathan Warner, “Towards a Christian Economics?,” PRO REGE, September 2001, 13. Cf., Steve de Gruchy, “Unfair development,” Inside Out, February 2002, 22. Gruchy writes, “Development that does not address distribution of wealth and the balance of power between men and women will always fail to address the real-life situation of women”.
Perkins, Guidelines for Development, 18.
Warner, “Towards a Christian Economic?,” 14.
 Edwin Ibañez Lariza, “Networking As a Development Strategy of NGOs in the Province of Iloilo,” (M.A. Thesis, College of Social Work and Community Development, University of the Philippines, 2000), 32.
Amartya Sen as quoted by Steve de Gruchy, “Poor? What do you mean?,” in CWM Inside Out, February/March 2004, 22.
Perkins, Guidelines for Development, 18.
Oscar P. Ferrer, Emmanuel M. Luna, and Angelito G. Manalili, “The Roots and Context of Social Mobilization in the Philippines,” from the Philippine Experience: How Social Mobilization Works, Ofelia Valdecanas, Ramon Tuazon, and Delia Barcelona, eds. (Manila: UP College of Mass Communication and UNICEF, 1996), 12.
 “The Tagaytay ’85 Covenant,” from A Public Faith, A Social Witness: Statements and Resolutions of the National Council of Churches in the Philippines, vol. 1, Research and Documentation Office (RDO), ed., (Quezon City, Philippines: National Council of Churches in the Philippines, 1995), 122.
Nestor Distora Bunda, Mission History of the Philippine Baptist Churches 1898-1998: From Philippine Perspective, (Verlag an der Lottbak im Besitz des Verlags Mainz; 1999), 48.
David S. Lim, Transforming Communities: Biblical Concepts on Poverty and Social Justice, (Mandaluyong, Metro Manila: OMF Literature, 1992), 9.
 Perkins, Guidelines for Development, 22.
de Guchy, “Poor? What do you mean?,” in CWM Inside Out, 22.
Teodoro C. Bacani, Jr., “The Situation of Poverty and Response of the Church to Poverty Issues,” in Caritas, 12:4, September-October 2000, 10.
Maggay, Transforming Society, 39.
Lariza, “Networking As a Development Strategy of NGOs in the Province of Iloilo,” 32.
Ferrer, et al., “The Roots and Context of Social Mobilization in the Philippines,” in the Philippine Experience: How Social Mobilization Works, 12.
 Emmanuel M. Luna, “Rethinking Community Development in the Philippines: ‘Indigenizing’ and Regaining Grounds,” A Paper presented during the 4th National Social Science Discipline in the Philippines on January 30-31, 1998 at the PSSC, Quezon City, 9.
Perkins, Guidelines, 19.
Luna, “Rethinking Community Development in the Philippines, 10.
Ferrer, et al., “The Roots and Context of Social Mobilization in the Philippines,” in the Philippine Experience: How Social Mobilization Works, 15.
Luna, “Rethinking Community Development in the Philippines, 36.
 Perkins, Guidelines, 19-20.
 Colin Marchant, “Take a Walk: Urban Mission in the United Kingdom,” in Serving with the Urban Poor, Tetsunao Yamamori, et al, (Manila, Philippines: MARC Publications, 1998, 26.
Yamamori, “Introduction,” in Serving with Urban Poor, 4.
Maggay, Transforming Society, 59.
http://www.network935.org/about/hm/html. Internet. Accessed om Thursday, September 30, 2004.
Yamamori, “Appendix B: Case Study Guideline,” in Serving with the Urban Poor, 231.
Maggay, Transforming Society, 11.
http://www.network935.org/about/hm/html. Internet. Accessed om Thursday, September 30, 2004.
Tetsunao Yamamori and Kim-kwong Chan, Witnesses to Power: Stories of God’s Quiet Work in a Changing China, (United Kingdom: Paternoster Publishing, 2000), 104-105. Cf. Perkins, Guidelines for Development, 18. Perkins says here, “People transforming the world and creating their own future; thus, it is participating in God’s redemptive plan for mankind.” Cf., further with Jonathan Warner, “Towards a Christian Economics”, in PRO REGE, September 2001, 13. The vision of Warner is to see, “each human being is able to flourish, to become what he or she ought to be as an image-bearer of God.”
Yamamori and Chan, Witnesses to Power, 5.
Cf., Benigno Beltran, The Christology of the Inarticulate: An Inquiry into the Filipino Understanding of Jesus the Christ, (Manila, Philippines: Divine Word Publications, 1987), 221-222. Beltran says here “. . . In the Philippines, the sacred and the profane are not separated, though recognized as distinct . . . .”
Beltran, “Toward a theology of holistic ministry,” in Serving the Urban Poor, 181.
Life Application Study Bible: New International Version, (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1991), 141.
Hywel R. Jones, “Exodus,” The New Bible Commentary: Revised, ed., D. Guthrie and J. A. Motyer, (Grand Rapids, Michigan: WM. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1979), 133.
Life Application Study Bible, 141,
David S. Lim, Transforming Communities: Biblical Concepts on Poverty and Social Justice, (Mandaluyong, Metro Manila: OMF Literature, 1992), 9.
Beltran, “Toward a theology of holistic ministry,” in Serving the Urban Poor, 183.
I. H. Marshall, “Luke,” from New Bible Commentary, 905.
Maggay, Transforming Society, 56.
Marshall, “Luke,” from New Bible Commentary, 905.
Life Application Bible, 1823.
De Guchy, “Unfair Development,” in CWM: Inside Out, February 2002, 22.
Holistic ministry is conceptualized as affirming that evangelism and sociopolitical involvement, though functionally separate yet relationally inseparable, and both are essential to the total ministry of Christ’s church, according to Tetsunao Yamamori, Serving with the Urban Poor, (Manila, Philippines: Logos Publication, 1999), 231. Cf., Maggay, Transforming Society, 11. Maggay states here that evangelism and social action are distinct; both however, are parts of our Christian duty.
Cf., Brigitte Rabarijaona as quoted by Nick Sireau, “Street Life,” Inside Out, February 2002, 12. Rabarijaona currently finishing her dissertation on the Gospel for the Marginalized said, “Yet caring for the poor is key to preaching the gospel, for that’s what Jesus told us to do. Indeed, it’s the heart of the Christian faith.”
Beltran, “Toward a theology of holistic ministry,” in Serving the Urban Poor, 178.
Donald Miller, Emergent Patterns of Christian Leadership: Lessons from the Developing World (electronic copy), 12.
Al Wolters, “Runner’s Impact on the Academy and Beyond: Personal Reflections,” in PRO REGE: A Quarterly Faculty Publication of Dordt College, September 2003, 5-6.
Nestor D. Bunda, Mission History of the Philippine Baptist Churches 1898-1998, From a Philippine Baptist Perspective, 299.
Agustin E. Masa, “Jesus and Mission,” in Managing Faith Resources, eds., Nestor D. Bunda, et al. (Iloilo City: CBMA 2003), 157.
Maggay, Transforming Society, 41.
 Cf., Colin Marchant, “Take a Walk: Urban Mission in the United Kingdom,” from Serving with the Urban Poor, p. 17. Marchant says,
From 1800 to 1851 other Christian agencies emerged to respond to the developing urban situation. Some sprang directly from churches and worked closely with them. Others started with a cluster of concerned individuals and became autonomous, but often with specific Christian constitutions and charters. Some were transplanted from other nations. This incredibly diverse and dynamic flood of agencies acted on behalf of, represented or coordinated in towns and cities.
Perkins, Guidelines, 1.
Christopher Wright, in his book, Living as the People of God, as cited by Jonathan Warner, “Towards Christian Economics?,” from PRO REGE, 12.
Perkins, Guidelines, 9.
Lariza, “Networking As a Development Strategy of NGOs in the Province of Iloilo,” 32.
http://www.network935.org/about/hm.html. Internet. Accessed on Thursday, September 30, 2004.
Bacani, Situation of Poverty, 12.
Lim, Transforming Communities, 11.